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The Energy Investment Risk Assessment (EIRA) is a publication of the Energy Charter Secretariat that evaluates specific risks to energy investment that can be mitigated through adjustments to policy, legal and regulatory frameworks.

Download the 2020 version here or from the EIRA website at:

The Energy Charter Secretariat has published the Annual Report for 2019. The Report summarises the activities throughout the year and highlights the Albanian Chairmanship of the Energy Charter Conference.

The Energy Charter Secretariat is pleased to announce that the In-Depth Review of the Energy Efficiency Policy of the Republic of Azerbaijan is now available on our website. The In-Depth Review was prepared in 2019 by the Secretariat in cooperation with the Ministry of Energy of Azerbaijan and the final recommendation of the report was approved by the Energy Charter Conference in December 2019. The In-depth Energy Efficiency Reviews have a standard format and are broad in scope, analyse the economic and energy context of the country, patterns of energy use, energy efficiency policies and institutional frameworks.

Over the last decade, the demand for energy services in Yemen has accelerated, as a result of economic development and population expansion. Electricity demand, as indicated by the Yemen Public Electricity Corporation (PEC) has reached an increase of 9.6 percent annually since 2000 (PEC, 2006). PEC estimated that this rapid growth rate would continue in the long term. The rapid increase of electricity demand puts additional pressure on the poorly performing electricity supply industry. The electricity sector of Yemen has been part of social and political agenda of the government.

The rapid development of regional energy infrastructure is necessary to achieve economic development and growth in East Africa. This paper examines the role of the International Energy Charter and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) process in facilitating investments in energy infrastructure in East Africa. The paper highlights major renewable and conventional energy projects in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania that have regional implications.  

The Energy Investment Risk Assessment (EIRA) is a publication of the Energy Charter Secretariat that evaluates specific risks affecting energy investment that can be mitigated through adjustments to policy, legal and regulatory frameworks. Download the 2019 version here or for more details, visit the EIRA website at:

On 13 June 2019, Albania hosted the Tirana International Energy Charter Forum. The event was hosted by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy and highlighted energy diversification, renewables and energy efficiency.

H.E. Minister Belinda Balluku opened the Forum to highlight Albania’s participation and leadership as the Chair of the Energy Charter Conference. Albania assumed the Chair of the Conference for 2019 and Minister Balluku highlighted the competitive nature of the Albanian energy sector that aims to improve energy efficiency and encourage energy supply diversification in the region. Albania is a European leader in renewable energy particularly in production of hydroelectricity

This research paper is conducted as part of the Chinese perspective on the consultation process to modernise the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT). The key task of this paper is to critically assess and analyse as to whether the topics listed in CCDEC2017 23 are of special relevance for China in light of the country’s potential accession to the ECT, and to further identify as to which benefits accession to the ECT would bring to China.

An in-depth review of the energy efficiency policy of Montenegro was conducted in 2018 and published in 2019. This review report has been prepared by the Energy Charter Secretariat in cooperation with the Ministry of Economy of Montenegro. The peer review team was composed of officials from countries that are parties to the Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Effects (PEEREA), Energy Charter Secretariat and international organisations: Mr. Mihai Ramniceanu,  Director of Energy Efficiency Division of Energy Regulatory Authority (ANRE), Romania, Chair of the Review, Dr. Peter Gvero,  Professor of the University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Banja Luka, Bo...

The International Energy Charter has published the Annual Report for 2018 which provides insight into the activities and events throughout the year. Some of the key highlights include the inaugural public launch of the International Energy Charter’s new flagship publication; the Energy Investment Risk Assessment (#EIRA2018), the accession of Jordan (December 2018) and Yemen (January 2019) to the Energy Charter Treaty, , the finalisation of a Model Instrument for the Management of Investment Disputes and the Energy Charter Conference’s agreed list of topics to be addressed in the modernisation process.

This publication by the Energy Charter Secretariat sets out in one complete document how the Energy Charter Conference, its subsidiary bodies and its Secretariat should function. It has been compiled for the use and benefit of the members of the Conference, their delegates,and all who engage with the Energy Charter process.

Governments seek concrete instruments to assist them in raising investments. At the same time, investors need a predictable and robust legal framework for undertaking large scale investments. This requires, on both sides, proper investment planning as well as sound instruments for assessing market risk as well as evaluating policy, legal and regulatory issues. All market actors must be confident that the enabling environment for investment will remain attractive enough. Moreover, governments need to ensure that investment projects are realised and they live up to public policy goals. The EIRA Extended Country Profile for Nigeria aims to assist both the Government and investors in reducing...

A long-standing history of cooperation between the Energy Charter Secretariat and the National Energy Administration of China has recently intensified reflecting China’s global energy investment interests. China gained Observer status to the Energy Charter Conference in 2015 when it signed the International Energy Charter political declaration in The Hague. In 2017, the International Energy Charter-China Electricity Council Joint Research Centre was established in Beijing. The Energy Charter Industry Advisory Panel (IAP) has been also active in China, holding IAP sessions in Beijing in 2015 and 2017 and assisting the Energy Charter Secretariat with the publications related to the energy...

The Energy Investment Risk Assessment (EIRA) is a publication of the Energy Charter Secretariat that evaluates specific risks affecting energy investment that can be mitigated through adjustments to policy, legal and regulatory frameworks. It aims to identify policy gaps, provide learning opportunities, and stimulate reforms which make the investment climate of countries more robust and reduce the risk of investor-State disputes. 

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is often compared to the project of the European Union (EU). While one of the most common comparisons is the institutional structure of the EAEU, another important point of resemblance when noting the development of the Eurasian integration is the energy component. Russia stresses the security of demand as one of primary issue of its national security and energy plays an important role in the country's external relations, while for other EAEU members the security of supply makes an important part of their economic prosperity. Similar to the EU, where energy became one of the driving forces behind the European integration, the initiative of a common energy...