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The International Energy Charter publishes its first in-depth review of the energy efficiency policy of Armenia. The review, conducted in 2016, has been prepared by the Energy Charter Secretariat in cooperation with Armenia’s Ministry of Energy Infrastructure and Natural Resources (MENR). 

The Energy Charter Treaty obliges member states to endeavour to provide non-discriminatory treatment to investors from other member states in the 'pre-investment phase', i.e., the making of investments. This obligation, described in more detail in Article 10(2) of the Treaty, applies to the parties who have ratified the Treaty or apply it provisionally. The Blue Book is continuously updated, and revised versions are posted on the website.

This paper discusses the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) in the legal architecture regulating energy trade. It advocates that both legal institutions serve as vital tools to global energy governance in a rapidly changing trading landscape riddled with fragmentation. While both the WTO and ECT are treaty-based regimes, the WTO is a broad trade framework regulating trade in all goods and services of its Members, whereas the ECT is a specialised regime regulating trade and investment in the energy sector.

This publication by the Energy Charter Secretariat sets out in one complete document how the Energy Charter Conference and its Secretariat should function. It has been compiled for the use and benefit of the member states, their delegates, and all who engage with the Energy Charter Process.

This publication compiles the relevant documents related to the dispute resolution mechanisms under the Energy Charter Treaty and provides some useful flowcharts to facilitate their understanding. We expect it to be a useful tool for both governments and companies.

Investment conflict prevention tools are designed to facilitate resolution of investors’ grievances at a very early stage, thereby preventing their escalation into full blown legal disputes. Should the issue invoked by the investor still persist and escalate into a full dispute, conflict management tools allow for an effective and coordinated response from the host state. Conflict prevention and management mechanisms are fundamental to the maintenance of a long-term relationship between the investor and the host state. The ability of states to respond to investment-related issues strengthens existing investment relationships and contributes to the maintenance of those relationships in the...

Energy is critical to lasting economic growth, employment and environmental sustainability. The energy mix is changing on a global scale: the share of renewable energy has been rising in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue, despite the recent fall in fossil fuel prices. This change is driven by a range of market, technology and policy factors that vary from country to country. Creating favourable conditions for sustainable energy investments will be one of the greatest challenges in the years to come in Africa. In particular, African countries need to signal to investors that they are ready for capital inflows in affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.

Modern energy is essential for socio-economic development, and such investments in the energy sector are crucial in realizing universal energy access in Africa. In this regard, the East African Community (EAC) has embraced regional cooperation as a means of developing regional markets and also as a means of attracting more energy investments in East Africa.

For more than 25 years the Energy Charter Process has set rules for good governance in the energy sector, starting with the European Energy Charter (1991), then the Energy Charter Treaty (1994) and recently with the International Energy Charter (2015). As global energy markets evolve, the Energy Charter seeks to expand to other regions such as Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. This expansion project is part of the mandate of modernisation of the Energy Charter. Colombia and Chile are the first Latin American countries to sign the International Energy Charter, a declaration of political intention towards a new age of global energy cooperation. Since then, Colombia and the Energy...

The aim of this paper is to analyse the existing potential conditions and economic opportunities for regional electricity cooperation in the South Caucasus, and to work out policy recommendations on a potential technical Task Force to help achieve such cooperation. The paper is structured in three main chapters.

This report provides an overview of the Mozambican energy sector. The report presents national reforms against the core principles embodied in the International Energy Charter and the Energy Charter Treaty: security of supply and universal energy access, open and sustainable markets, national sovereignty, regional market integration, regulatory stability and predictability, research and technology transfer, and international cooperation.

Energy Cooperation between China and Central Asian countries is underpinned by strong economic rationale and institutional foundations. China should promote the establishment of a China-Central Asia energy community, particularly an energy transit community, in light of China’s recent advocacy of the "One Belt One Road" scheme. Due to the complexity of energy transit cooperation in the multistakeholder, multi-level and multi-policy dimensions, legal issues in energy transit regulation are intertwined with political, economic and social issues at both the inter- and intra-national level.

This occasional paper addresses major developments in cross-border electricity cooperation in the South Caucasus. The position of the South Caucasus, at a crossroads between the emerging Eurasian and European electricity markets, offers lucrative opportunities for cross-border trade and provides incentives for restoring the single transmission network that used to serve the countries of the region before the collapse of the Soviet Union. This study examines regulatory, economic, and political factors that affect the prospects of a regional electricity market. Accordingly, the paper is organised into three parts, addressing institutional, economic and political developments in the region, and...

 The Energy Charter Secretariat has published the Annual Report 2015.

Mexico is a leader for Latin America and the gate of North America for the rest of the continent. It has recently embarked on a thorough overhaul of its energy sector implying new constitutional foundations and an extensive development of secondary legislation and regulations.

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