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The aim of this paper is to analyse the existing potential conditions and economic opportunities for regional electricity cooperation in the South Caucasus, and to work out policy recommendations on a potential technical Task Force to help achieve such cooperation. The paper is structured in three main chapters.

This report provides an overview of the Mozambican energy sector. The report presents national reforms against the core principles embodied in the International Energy Charter and the Energy Charter Treaty: security of supply and universal energy access, open and sustainable markets, national sovereignty, regional market integration, regulatory stability and predictability, research and technology transfer, and international cooperation.

Energy Cooperation between China and Central Asian countries is underpinned by strong economic rationale and institutional foundations. China should promote the establishment of a China-Central Asia energy community, particularly an energy transit community, in light of China’s recent advocacy of the "One Belt One Road" scheme. Due to the complexity of energy transit cooperation in the multistakeholder, multi-level and multi-policy dimensions, legal issues in energy transit regulation are intertwined with political, economic and social issues at both the inter- and intra-national level.

This occasional paper addresses major developments in cross-border electricity cooperation in the South Caucasus. The position of the South Caucasus, at a crossroads between the emerging Eurasian and European electricity markets, offers lucrative opportunities for cross-border trade and provides incentives for restoring the single transmission network that used to serve the countries of the region before the collapse of the Soviet Union. This study examines regulatory, economic, and political factors that affect the prospects of a regional electricity market. Accordingly, the paper is organised into three parts, addressing institutional, economic and political developments in the region, and...

 The Energy Charter Secretariat has published the Annual Report 2015.

Mexico is a leader for Latin America and the gate of North America for the rest of the continent. It has recently embarked on a thorough overhaul of its energy sector implying new constitutional foundations and an extensive development of secondary legislation and regulations.

On 8 February 2016, the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce hosted the Energy Charter Forum in Stockholm. The event was jointly organised by the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, the Energy Charter Secretariat and the Permanent Court of Arbitration. 

According to the International Energy Agency, Brazil plays a central role in meeting the world’s oil needs through to 2035, accounting for one-third of the net growth in global supply. At the centre of the country’s efforts to become one of the world’s largest oil producers is a highly complex and capital-intensive deep-water project to develop its pre-salt basin oil reserves. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the pre-salt project and its production challenges – both economic and political – demonstrating the potential benefits of the adoption of the International Energy Charter for its development.

The furore over the use of ISDS (Investor/State Dispute Settlement) in the United States/European Union Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations has illustrated the increasing distrust by some Governments and Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) of the use of arbitration in resolving Investor/State disputes. Jean-Claude Junker, the President of the European Commission, has likened arbitral tribunals to “secret courts”. This criticism has also spilled over into domestic arbitration. The New York Times published two critical articles this year accusing arbitration of “stacking the deck of justice” and calling it a “privatisation of the justice system”. The articles...

The aim of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is to establish a legal framework to promote long-term cooperation in the energy sector. The key provisions of the ECT concern the protection of investment, trade in energy materials and products, transit, energy efficiency and dispute settlement. Ukraine is a founding member of the Energy Charter Process. Having signed the International Energy Charter in May 2015, Ukraine reconfirmed its commitment to the Energy Charter and its continuing interest in its further development.

The main purpose of this report is to assess the core pillars of the new legal framework provided by the Energy Community Treaty (EnC Treaty) and EU Energy Law with respect to cross-border gas trade and access conditions for natural gas transportation infrastructure. At the same time, it seeks to distinguish the differential treatment provided in the existing multilateral legal frameworks (Energy Charter Treaty and GATT/WTO) and the EnC Treaty/EU rules with regard to transit and cross-border trade.

The consolidated version of the Energy Charter Treaty and related documents is not a legal document. It is a comprehensive reader-friendly edition is designed to facilitate work with the founding documents of the Charter: it contains text currently in force – with modifications up to date included and with parts which are no longer applicable removed for the sake of clarity. Guidance is provided in the margins by way of Editor's notes.

The Report was prepared by Prof. Wenhua Shan (Dean and Chair, Xi’an Jiaotong University) during his stay in Brussels as a Fellow at the Energy Charter Secretariat, with the assistance of Peng Wang (former Legal Intern at the Secretariat and a PhD. Candidate at Xi’ang Jiaotong University). It is another step into the deepening of the relations between the Energy Charter and China

Niger has significant energy potential, rich and varied, that is weakly exploited. It consists of biomass (firewood and agricultural residues, the main source used by households for cooking), uranium, mineral coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectricity and solar energy. Despite this rich potential, access to energy is still a challenges for the authorities. Final energy consumption in Niger is estimated at 0.15 toe per capita, one of the lowest in the world. The weakness of this value is mainly due to limited access of Niger's households to modern energy.

The second In-depth energy efficiency review of Moldova was completed in 2015, by a team of experts from Slovakia (review team Leader) and Portugal, supported by the Energy Charter Secretariat and a local energy efficiency expert. 

The report commends Moldavian Government for giving high consideration to potential contribution of energy efficiency towards decreasing fuel imports and supporting economic growth and the environment giving and recommends that further attention is to be given to the stability of legislative framework as an important precondition for attracting investments in the energy efficiency and renewable energy sectors. In addition, future energy policies need to be...