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The In-Depth Review of Latvia was carried out in March 2007 by a team of experts led by Norway and composed of representatives of Denmark, Lithuania, and Ukraine, supported by the Energy Charter Secretariat. Improvements in Latvia's energy efficiency indicators have resulted from structural and energy sector market reforms, but some implemented energy efficiency initiatives have also contributed to the descending energy intensity trend. Latvia's energy mix also has a large and increasing share of renewable energy, based on exploiting the country's natural hydro and biomass resources.

Foreign direct investment is playing a major role in Turkey's economic development and prosperity, and - as highlighted in this report from the Energy  Charter - the Turkish authorities have taken major steps in recent years to create a favourable and non-discriminatory investment climate.

The report puts into context the production and use of non-petroleum transportation liquid fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel, and synthetic fuels) in key markets. Both 'first generation' biofuels (for which technologies are already commercially deployed) and 'second generation' fuels (for which research and development is underway, but without, as yet, commercial deployment) are considered.

This report describes and analyses the development of international oil and gas pricing mechanisms. It is organised in a way that each chapter can be read on its own; the factual chapters and sections on oil, gas in North America, gas in the UK, gas in Continental Europe and liquefied natural gas.

Energy efficiency has never been as relevant as it is today. If the global potential for energy saving can be realised, this would have profound implications for energy security and for avoiding greenhouse gas emissions...

The Energy Strategy through 2020 (approved by the Government in 2003) considers improvement of energy efficiency as a vital economic policy direction of the state and envisages a 50% reduction of the energy intensity by 2020 as compared to 2000. The Review reveals that in the years 2000-2005 the energy intensity has reduced by 21% and describes prospects for further energy efficiency improvements, and some relevant measures to achieve these. The best impact is expected from improvements in the electricity sector, metallurgy and other energy intensive industries, as well as a result of an overall restructuring of the economy.

The international energy economy depends on the reliable operation of oil and gas pipeline networks; in many parts of the world, these pipelines are the arteries that bring energy supplies from wellhead to market.

An In-depth Energy Efficiency "peer review" of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was undertaken in September 2007 by a review team of national energy efficiency experts from Energy Charter member countries - Switzerland, Bulgaria, Croatia and Malta, and from the Energy Charter Secretariat. The review was carried out in close cooperation with the Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Macedonia.

This study follows up on the initial Report on the Investment Climate and Market Structure in the Energy Sector of Ukraine, which was prepared and published by the Energy Charter in 2002.

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has made significant progress in establishing a competitive and investor-friendly environment for the operation of its energy sector, but these efforts need to be sustained in order to create an efficient and secure national energy market.

This review examines the formulation of energy efficiency policies and programmes in the distinctive political and geographical context of Switzerland.

A strength of the Energy Charter's work on energy efficiency is that it allows for an exchange of experience between countries facing a variety of policy challenges. Some Energy Charter member states are only starting to develop and implement a strategy in relation to energy efficiency, and has therefore been beneficial to have access to the experience of countries like Sweden that have long made it a national priority to promote sustainable development.

The energy intensity of Slovakia's economy is still 1.9 times higher than the EU average, due to a the prominent role of industry in GDP, but this difference is gradually decreasing due to structural changes and increases in energy efficiency.

2005 was a critical year for international cooperation on climate change, witnessing the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol and the launch of the EU's emissions trading system for CO2. A new publication from the Energy Charter provides an update on developments in the EU's system, and discusses opportunities that climate change mitigation policies open up for countries across the Energy Charter constituency for investments in energy efficiency.

This report addresses the role of local authorities in promoting cogeneration and district heating, which are used in many Energy Charter member countries but often not to their full potential. The share of cogeneration in total power production varies from between 10-50% in different countries, and the share of district heating in total heat production varies from less than 5% to more than 60%...

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