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Egypt's energy sector is currently facing a variety of conflicting and overlapping challenges. This is mainly seen in Egypt's gruelling efforts to strike a balance between production, domestic consumption, and export revenue, while seeking to maintain internal political harmony. Despite the fact that Egypt is the largest non-OPEC oil producer in Africa and the second largest gas producer in the continent, as well as the vital role it plays in regional and global energy markets, the country's energy status throughout the last four years reflects a reversal on all levels.

This work by Energy Charter research fellow Mr Uğur Erman Özgür discusses the relation between investment protection and taxation under international investment agreements. It is common practice that taxation is a sovereign and legitimate regulatory exercise which usually remains excluded by international standards of investment protection. In this respect, Article 21 of the Energy Charter Treaty provides a complex mechanism preserving the sovereign taxation powers.

This review concludes that Latvia has consistently pursued liberal economic policies and reforms to improve the business climate. The business reforms in Latvia have strengthened the private sector, created macroeconomic conditions favourable for growth and helped to improve the business environment, thus attracting the attention of international investors.

The report, prepared by Mr. Anatole Boute as a fellow at the Energy Charter Secretariat's Knowledge Centre, focuses on the modernisation of the electricity infrastructure in Central Asia, in particular energy efficiency improvements and clean energy development. It looks at regional energy cooperation and the export of electricity to neighbouring countries as a way to facilitate investments in the modernisation of electricity supply and to improve energy efficiency in the region.

The report focuses on common principles and regional specificities that can be derived from selected Intergovernmental Agreements on oil and gas transit pipelines which were analysed. The report evaluates these common norms vis-à-vis the Energy Charter Model Agreements on Cross-Border Pipelines and the provisions of the draft Transit Protocol. Recommendations are made in view of a possible agreement on common principles or rules on transit and cross-border energy flows in the Energy Charter context.

Energy security has been high on policy agendas from the 2000s onwards. This report introduces varied meanings of energy security among energy exporting, transit, and importing countries. It looks at the prospects of different views on energy security, in particular between exporters and importers, to evolve into a common comprehensive concept, which would be applicable to any country.

The Annual Reports provide a comprehensive overview of all activities of the Secretariat and the organisation in general for the year in question.

Both pecuniary (i.e., economic compensation) and non-pecuniary (i.e., orders for specific performance) remedies are available to arbitral tribunals instituted under Article 26 of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT). However, the award has to expressly provide for the Contracting Party to opt to pay monetary damages in lieu of non-pecuniary remedies in cases of Treaty breaches related to acts of sub-national governments or authorities.

The report analyses the current state of cooperation between China and Central Asian countries in the energy sector. Special attention is given to the benefits and relevance of the Energy Charter Treaty to China. The report is intended for use by China's policy makers defining the country's engagement in international cooperation.

This annual publication gives an overview of the Industry Advisory Panel's activities.

Armenia has been very successful in attracting foreign investment to promote energy production in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, the development of secure and diversified sources of energy imports remains a pressing issue for the country. This review shows that the Armenia's potential in the electricity sector could be enhanced by improving interconnections with other countries in the region. The Energy Charter Secretariat is preparing to launch a regional task-force on a technical level to address issues of electricity interconnections among the Caucasus countries, which would support the creation of a regional electricity market in the long-term future.

Since 2012 Kazakhstan has adopted a series of legislative acts defining the main requirements in the field of energy efficiency. Currently, the central document is the Law on Energy Saving and Increasing Energy Efficiency. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan has also set the target to reduce GDP energy intensity by at least 40% by 2020 compared to 2008 levels.

Since the implementation of the “Reform and Opening-up” policy, over the past three decades, China has maintained a rapid pace of economic growth with an average annual GDP increase of 9.8%. This strong economic performance has very much been underlined by the necessary build-up of accompanying energy infrastructure and the rationalising of energy markets.

When talking about global energy governance, it is important to highlight the fact that this term encompasses the international relations on matters relating to energy, predominantly its production, transit and consumption.

This study focuses on the modernisation of the electricity infrastructure in Central Asia, in particular energy efficiency improvements and clean energy development. The starting point of the analysis is the recognition by the Central Asian states that the modernisation of electricity supply depends on the active participation of private – and in particular foreign – investors in these markets.