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The aim of the report is to present a comprehensive overview of existing legal practices in cross-border pipeline projects in several parts of the world. To this end, the report first identifies 19 core topics of cross-border pipeline agreements. It then evaluates how these topics are incorporated in 17 different cross-border oil and gas pipeline projects as well in the Energy Charter Model Agreements on Cross-Border Pipelines and in the provisions of the draft Transit Protocol.

A report published by the Energy Charter and funded by the European Union on the energy sector in Tanzania.

Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the newly independent South Caucasus states experienced an impressive deterioration in the economic and social sectors. Unresolved territorial conflicts such as Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, as well as the wider insecurity of the region, have resulted in internal instability and economic depressions. Due to political conflicts, civil opposition and blockades, the South Caucasus region became a challenging area for trade, and this affected all areas of the economy including energy. The energy markets of the South Caucasus states, which were part of the unified Trans-Caucasus energy system during the Soviet era, broke down and...

This study shows that the Energy Charter Treaty and the International Energy Charter are suitable legal and political foundations for energy cooperation in Northeast Asia. Active participation of new partner countries, the Republic of Korea and China in the Energy Charter Process allows to share the lessons learnt in the realisation of the EU internal electricity market and its pragmatic solutions. The study confirms that the broad concept of national sovereignty under the Energy Charter Treaty and the International Energy Charter makes it possible that Northeast Asian countries benefit from pragmatic solutions experienced in other regions such as the EU and may start collaborating on...

Egypt's energy sector is currently facing a variety of conflicting and overlapping challenges. This is mainly seen in Egypt's gruelling efforts to strike a balance between production, domestic consumption, and export revenue, while seeking to maintain internal political harmony. Despite the fact that Egypt is the largest non-OPEC oil producer in Africa and the second largest gas producer in the continent, as well as the vital role it plays in regional and global energy markets, the country's energy status throughout the last four years reflects a reversal on all levels.

This work by Energy Charter research fellow Mr Uğur Erman Özgür discusses the relation between investment protection and taxation under international investment agreements. It is common practice that taxation is a sovereign and legitimate regulatory exercise which usually remains excluded by international standards of investment protection. In this respect, Article 21 of the Energy Charter Treaty provides a complex mechanism preserving the sovereign taxation powers.

This review concludes that Latvia has consistently pursued liberal economic policies and reforms to improve the business climate. The business reforms in Latvia have strengthened the private sector, created macroeconomic conditions favourable for growth and helped to improve the business environment, thus attracting the attention of international investors.

The report, prepared by Mr. Anatole Boute as a fellow at the Energy Charter Secretariat's Knowledge Centre, focuses on the modernisation of the electricity infrastructure in Central Asia, in particular energy efficiency improvements and clean energy development. It looks at regional energy cooperation and the export of electricity to neighbouring countries as a way to facilitate investments in the modernisation of electricity supply and to improve energy efficiency in the region.

The report focuses on common principles and regional specificities that can be derived from selected Intergovernmental Agreements on oil and gas transit pipelines which were analysed. The report evaluates these common norms vis-à-vis the Energy Charter Model Agreements on Cross-Border Pipelines and the provisions of the draft Transit Protocol. Recommendations are made in view of a possible agreement on common principles or rules on transit and cross-border energy flows in the Energy Charter context.

Energy security has been high on policy agendas from the 2000s onwards. This report introduces varied meanings of energy security among energy exporting, transit, and importing countries. It looks at the prospects of different views on energy security, in particular between exporters and importers, to evolve into a common comprehensive concept, which would be applicable to any country.

The Annual Reports provide a comprehensive overview of all activities of the Secretariat and the organisation in general for the year in question.

Both pecuniary (i.e., economic compensation) and non-pecuniary (i.e., orders for specific performance) remedies are available to arbitral tribunals instituted under Article 26 of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT). However, the award has to expressly provide for the Contracting Party to opt to pay monetary damages in lieu of non-pecuniary remedies in cases of Treaty breaches related to acts of sub-national governments or authorities.

The report analyses the current state of cooperation between China and Central Asian countries in the energy sector. Special attention is given to the benefits and relevance of the Energy Charter Treaty to China. The report is intended for use by China's policy makers defining the country's engagement in international cooperation.

This annual publication gives an overview of the Industry Advisory Panel's activities.

Armenia has been very successful in attracting foreign investment to promote energy production in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, the development of secure and diversified sources of energy imports remains a pressing issue for the country. This review shows that the Armenia's potential in the electricity sector could be enhanced by improving interconnections with other countries in the region. The Energy Charter Secretariat is preparing to launch a regional task-force on a technical level to address issues of electricity interconnections among the Caucasus countries, which would support the creation of a regional electricity market in the long-term future.